The Taste of Devotion (Phantom River)
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Osman, Meeks, and I have come to spend a half day climbing at the site. Two hundred feet high, girdled with a sloping, snow-clad boulder field, the outcropping rises from the relative flats southwest of Lake Tahoe. From its peak, a small airport is visible to the south. The site was named for a popular coffeehouse and pie shop--long since vanished--frequented by climbers at the nearest intersection of Route 50 and Sawmill Road.
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Unwinding from its center, its end affixed to Osman's harness, the rope follows the ravine between two stones, rises through the shivering branches of a manzanita bush, and moves vertically across the granite face. Diamondbacked in fluorescent orange, yellow, and green, the rope is slightly less than nine millimeters in diameter. The accumulated friction of its passage produces an amplified hiss in the windless silence which ebbs and swells in rhythm with the climber above.
Here on the exposed southern flank of the outcropping, in direct sun, the late winter air is warm. Despite the rope attached to his harness, Osman is free-soloing the foot climb. That is to say, he is climbing unprotected by the rope, and any fall will send him to the earth. He is merely "tailing" the rope to the top of the outcropping for use as protection in a later, more difficult climb.
The route he follows is called Earn Your Wings. Osman began climbing at age twelve, with the encouragement of his mother, Sharon Louise Burks, a horse trainer and two-time world champion barrel racer a rodeo event involving agile horses, standing barrels, and figure eights. Despite his evident talent, he describes himself as a slow developer; it took him eight years to climb 5. He now ranks among the country's finest rock climbers.
Climbers speak of elegance--elegance of climbing style, of route. It is undeniable that climbing without rope is more elegant than climbing roped, as climbing roped but mechanically unaided is more elegant than gadgeting skyward with ascenders and short nylon rope ladders, called etriers.
The catch of free-soloing, and its appeal, is the simplicity of the equation it demands: one cannot fall. Like kendo practitioners who lay aside their wooden swords to duel with live blades, the climber--in abandoning the rope on routes where falling is synonymous with extinction--becomes a kind of mystic.
In preparation for a difficult solo Osman will climb the route several times on rope, repeating the crux, or most difficult move of the route, until certain he can execute the climb without error. Loosely translated from the Japanese as "vital energy," ki is not a cultural abstraction, but a tangible phenomenon, as significant to the martial artist as harmony is to the musician. The hara literally "belly" , an area in the abdomen below the navel, is held to be the center and source of physical energy. It serves as a reservoir of sorts in which ki , largely through breath control, may be pooled and from which it may be directed.
I let the fear and negative energy escape. I feel the gravity more. When I step onto the rock, my senses immediately sharpen. The taste in my mouth becomes vivid. In the s Osman's paternal great-grandfather, a descendant of samurai families in the Takeuchi clan, emigrated to Hawaii from the mountainous Iwakuni region of Japan.
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Takeuchi was shot and killed in on a sugar plantation in the act of disarming a fellow laborer bent on assassinating their foreman. Born in Corona, California, Osman was trained as a boy in the samurai ethic of bushido by his father, Les Osman, a twenty-one-year-veteran police officer. At his father's encouragement, the young Osman studied aikido and later kung fu. The elder Osman, initially critical of his son's vocation, is now outspokenly supportive.
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He met the tiger and he didn't run. He walked away. Although the general meaning of this comment is clear, I am confused by its concluding sentence. If the tiger is Osman's fear, then he is certainly not running from it. And yet, by pushing the grade as a climber, and by jumping from bridges, I do not see how he has walked away, or even merely stood his ground. Someday, perhaps, he may let his terrors come to him.
But now, by my measure, he aggressively pursues the tiger of his father's metaphor. The younger Osman does not turn his back to fear. He tracks it, baits it, and withstands its rush. Despite the ease of Earn Your Wings for a climber of his ability, Osman appears to spare nothing. His pace is unhurried. The expression on his face is a void. Even on large, so-called positive holds, the placement of his hands and feet--the latter tightly shod in pale blue, red-laced rock shoes soled in sticky black rubber--is unerringly precise.
Without interrupting the liquid flow of his movement he seems to consider each hold as if preparing to catch the raised head of an asp. When he makes his placement, it is final. There is no shuffle, no grope. For all his fluidity, there is an awesome mechanical beat to his progress.
He seems to climb within a field generated by the concentration of his will. From Class 1, walking, and Class 2, scrambling, the rating mounts to difficult and exposed "free-climbing" at Class 5, and concludes with "aid-climbing" at Class 6. Often confused by the layman with free-soloing, free-climbing is to climb a route using nothing but natural holds--cracks, flakes, pockets, and other imperfections of the rock--without the aid of mechanical devices in resting or ascent.
In free-climbing, such devices may be used only as protection, set in place along the route to catch an accidental fall. So-called aid is employed on routes where natural hand- and footholds are nonexistent or so negligible that mechanical assistance is required to ascend.
Essentially, the aid climber rests and climbs with his or her weight placed directly on the mechanical anchors. Typically, this requires the use of etriers.
A pair of climbers could thus leapfrog up a steeply overhanging face of perfect marble, provided they were willing to drill bolts. Long, multiday climbs, particularly those found on big walls like Yosemite Valley's El Capitan, often mix free- and aid-climbing; a superior climber may be able to "free" what a less experienced climber must "aid. Class 5 is subdivided through the addition of an unorthodox decimal system, further nuanced by a plus or minus 5.
The distinction between a 5. The difference of a full decimal point, however, is substantial; until recently, a dedicated climber could expect to spend months or even years advancing from 5. With the likes of Katie Brown and Chris Sharma children of thirteen at the time of my first visit with Osman , climbing 5. Many credit their astonishing success to the intense training afforded by gym climbing, continuing refinements in equipment and technique, and perhaps most important, a mental edge possessed by these young climbers: they are not intimidated by numerical ratings; they are not afraid to try and fail.
When the Yosemite Decimal System was implemented, the world's best climbers could not imagine a route as difficult as 5. At the time, then, there was no imaginable conflict, mathematically, with a decimal system in which the next whole numberwas unavailable, taken as it was to define a wholly different style of climbing. We would never need the ratings 5. By , when the first, miraculous 5. The climbing community scrambled for a solution. Some--the more mathematically compulsive among them--suggested usurping Class 6 for the advancement of free-climbing and assigning a different value to aid-climbing.
Certain aid climbers, unsurprisingly, protested. Someone else suggested breaking 5. But no one liked the sound of climbing 5. Then someone came up with a brilliant stroke of illogic, of mathematical impossibility. That's six!
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Or else it's five-one-oh, in which case we're going backward. And the beauty of it lies in the fact that it can go on forever, eternally ignorant of mathematical law.
Five ninety-nine. Earn Your Wings is a 5. Arguably the most difficult free climb in the world at writing--infamous for its dynamic, one-finger moves--is Action Directe , 5. Believed by many to be the greatest free-climber in the history of rock climbing, Gullich was killed in an auto accident in at the age of thirty-one. In order to complete the route, Gullich gradually trained the tendons of his index and middle fingers until he could perform repetitive one-finger, one-armed pull-ups without injury.
This alone would have been adequate if the route demanded nothing but static one-finger moves. A static move--as opposed to a dynamic, or lunging, move--is one in which the climber's weight is gradually shifted from one position to the next. Dynamic moves, or "dynos," are required when the next available hold lies beyond the climber's natural reach.
The climber jumps trough the air, in effect, to the next hold. Commonly, the target of a dyno, is generous--a large pocket or horn that is easy to grasp, possibly with both hands. To throw a dyno and land on a single-finger pocket--a feat previously unheard-of--Gullich perfected a technique called dead-pointing. He trained himself to leap with precisely enough force to arrive within reach of the hold in the dead point of his arc.
He learned to place his finger during that weightless instant, at the apex of his jump, when he was neither rising nor falling. With his finger in position, he cushioned the subsequent landing by extending his bent arm like an expanding spring, and diverting as much weight as possible to his feet, connected through friction to the rock below.