OD Other Dimension

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Arguing for a multiverse

Were it true, what would these dimensions look like and how might they affect us? And what is a dimension anyway? Two dimensions is just a point. We may remember the coordinate plane from math class with the x and y-axes. Another way to look at it is latitude, longitude, and altitude, which can locate any object on Earth.

Can our brains see the fourth dimension?

These are followed by the fourth dimension, space-time. Everything has to occur somewhere and at a certain time. After that, things get weird. Superstring theory, one of the leading theories today to explain the nature of our universe, contends that there are 10 dimensions. Throughout the 20 th century, physicists erected a standard model of physics. It explains pretty well how subatomic particles behave, along with the forces of the universe, such as electromagnetism, the stronger and weaker nuclear forces, and gravity. Even so, this model has allowed us the startling ability to peer back to the moments just after the Big Bang took place.

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Before that, scientists believe that everything was condensed into a single point of infinite density and temperature, known as the singularity, which exploded, forming everything in the observable universe today. The innovations it provides can account for gravity and help explain what existed before the Big Bang.

So what are these other dimensions and how might we experience them? Really, other dimensions are related to other possibilities. How we interact with these is difficult to explain. At the fifth dimension other possibilities for our world open up. In the seventh, eighth, and ninth dimensions, the possibility of other universes open up, ones where the very physical forces of nature change, places where gravity operates differently and the speed of light is different.

Just as in the fifth and sixth dimensions, where all possible permutations in the universe are evident before you, in the seventh dimension every possibility for these other universes, operating under these new laws, becomes clear. This parameter space is vast. The relevant dimensions include the three dimensions of space, the frequency range of potential signals, their repetition rate, polarization, and modulation, the transmission bandwidth, and the sensitivity of searches to this transmitted power.

The volume of three-dimensional space that can be searched is the volume of the universe centered on our solar system out to a specific distance. Wright and co define this as 10 kiloparsecs—about 30, light-years, or roughly the distance to the globular clusters that orbit the Milky Way galaxy. Most radio telescopes are able to observe signals in both polarizations at the same time, but this has not always been true in the past.

So this is a dimension that limits the exploration of the parameter space. Other dimensions are complex to characterize. The signal repetition rate, for example, is tricky to handle in the model. Continuous signals are easy to deal with, but signals that repeat rarely are difficult.

One relevant example is the famous Wow! But despite various attempts, this signal has never been observed again.

Urban Dictionary: dimension

That may be because it is entirely spurious, but it may be because the repetition rate is so low. An inductive dimension may be defined inductively as follows. Consider a discrete set of points such as a finite collection of points to be 0-dimensional. By dragging a 0-dimensional object in some direction, one obtains a 1-dimensional object. By dragging a 1-dimensional object in a new direction , one obtains a 2-dimensional object.

Moreover, the boundary of a discrete set of points is the empty set, and therefore the empty set can be taken to have dimension Similarly, for the class of CW complexes , the dimension of an object is the largest n for which the n -skeleton is nontrivial. Intuitively, this can be described as follows: if the original space can be continuously deformed into a collection of higher-dimensional triangles joined at their faces with a complicated surface, then the dimension of the object is the dimension of those triangles.

The Hausdorff dimension is useful for studying structurally complicated sets, especially fractals. The Hausdorff dimension is defined for all metric spaces and, unlike the dimensions considered above, can also have non-integer real values. In general, there exist more definitions of fractal dimensions that work for highly irregular sets and attain non-integer positive real values. Fractals have been found useful to describe many natural objects and phenomena. Every Hilbert space admits an orthonormal basis , and any two such bases for a particular space have the same cardinality.

This cardinality is called the dimension of the Hilbert space. This dimension is finite if and only if the space's Hamel dimension is finite, and in this case the two dimensions coincide. Movement in any other direction can be expressed in terms of just these three. Moving down is the same as moving up a negative distance. Moving diagonally upward and forward is just as the name of the direction implies; i. In its simplest form: a line describes one dimension, a plane describes two dimensions, and a cube describes three dimensions.

See Space and Cartesian coordinate system. A temporal dimension is a dimension of time. Time is often referred to as the " fourth dimension " for this reason, but that is not to imply that it is a spatial dimension. A temporal dimension is one way to measure physical change. It is perceived differently from the three spatial dimensions in that there is only one of it, and that we cannot move freely in time but subjectively move in one direction. The equations used in physics to model reality do not treat time in the same way that humans commonly perceive it.

A Universe of 10 Dimensions

The equations of classical mechanics are symmetric with respect to time , and equations of quantum mechanics are typically symmetric if both time and other quantities such as charge and parity are reversed. In these models, the perception of time flowing in one direction is an artifact of the laws of thermodynamics we perceive time as flowing in the direction of increasing entropy.

In physics, three dimensions of space and one of time is the accepted norm. However, there are theories that attempt to unify the four fundamental forces by introducing extra dimensions. Most notably, superstring theory requires 10 spacetime dimensions , and originates from a more fundamental dimensional theory tentatively called M-theory which subsumes five previously distinct superstring theories. To date, no experimental or observational evidence is available to support the existence of these extra dimensions. If extra dimensions exist, they must be hidden from us by some physical mechanism.

One well-studied possibility is that the extra dimensions may be "curled up" at such tiny scales as to be effectively invisible to current experiments. Limits on the size and other properties of extra dimensions are set by particle experiments [ clarification needed ] such as those at the Large Hadron Collider. At the level of quantum field theory , Kaluza—Klein theory unifies gravity with gauge interactions, based on the realization that gravity propagating in small, compact extra dimensions is equivalent to gauge interactions at long distances.

In particular when the geometry of the extra dimensions is trivial, it reproduces electromagnetism. However at sufficiently high energies or short distances, this setup still suffers from the same pathologies that famously obstruct direct attempts to describe quantum gravity. Therefore, these models still require a UV completion , of the kind that string theory is intended to provide. In particular, superstring theory requires six compact dimensions forming a Calabi—Yau manifold. Thus Kaluza-Klein theory may be considered either as an incomplete description on its own, or as a subset of string theory model building.

Thus the extra dimensions need not be small and compact but may be large extra dimensions. D-branes are dynamical extended objects of various dimensionalities predicted by string theory that could play this role. They have the property that open string excitations, which are associated with gauge interactions, are confined to the brane by their endpoints, whereas the closed strings that mediate the gravitational interaction are free to propagate into the whole spacetime, or "the bulk".

This could be related to why gravity is exponentially weaker than the other forces, as it effectively dilutes itself as it propagates into a higher-dimensional volume. Some aspects of brane physics have been applied to cosmology. For example, brane gas cosmology [10] [11] attempts to explain why there are three dimensions of space using topological and thermodynamic considerations.

According to this idea it would be because three is the largest number of spatial dimensions where strings can generically intersect. If initially there are lots of windings of strings around compact dimensions, space could only expand to macroscopic sizes once these windings are eliminated, which requires oppositely wound strings to find each other and annihilate. But strings can only find each other to annihilate at a meaningful rate in three dimensions, so it follows that only three dimensions of space are allowed to grow large given this kind of initial configuration.

Extra dimensions are said to be universal if all fields are equally free to propagate within them. Some complex networks are characterized by fractal dimensions.

Science fiction texts often mention the concept of "dimension" when referring to parallel or alternate universes or other imagined planes of existence. One of the most heralded science fiction stories regarding true geometric dimensionality, and often recommended as a starting point for those just starting to investigate such matters, is the novella Flatland by Edwin A. Isaac Asimov, in his foreword to the Signet Classics edition, described Flatland as "The best introduction one can find into the manner of perceiving dimensions.

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The idea of other dimensions was incorporated into many early science fiction stories, appearing prominently, for example, in Miles J. Classic stories involving other dimensions include Robert A. Heinlein 's —And He Built a Crooked House , in which a California architect designs a house based on a three-dimensional projection of a tesseract; and Alan E.