Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities
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Underneath the Chief Executive, there will usually be a number of directorates or departments, e. In some areas of England, local government is divided between a county council upper tier and a district council lower tier , which are responsible for different services. In other areas, there is a single unitary authority instead.
In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland there are only unitary, single tier councils. England — there are councils in England.
Demographic data on councillors is hard to find as it is not regularly or officially collected. The structure of local government varies from area to area, and region to region. In most of England, there are two tiers — county and district — with responsibility for services split between the two tiers. County councils cover the entire county area and provide around 80 per cent of the services. Within the county, there are several district councils which cover a smaller area and provide more local services. However London, other metropolitan areas and some parts of shire England operate under a single-tier council structure.
Since the establishment of Greater Manchester in , groups of councils have formed combined authorities in some areas of England. These combined authorities receive additional powers and funding from central government.
They are particularly important for transport and economic policy across the regions in which they are based. There are currently 9 combined authorities in England;. In some parts of England, Wales and Scotland there is another layer of local government below these councils called parish England , town England or community Wales and Scotland councils.
These are responsible for services such as management of town and village centres, litter, verges, cemeteries, parks, ponds, allotments, war memorials, and community halls. There are around 10, such councils in England, in Wales and in Scotland. There are none in Northern Ireland.
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Councils are responsible for a very wide range of services, many of which are statutory i. The range of services is broadly similar across England, Wales and Scotland but in Northern Ireland councils have a more limited scope. In England, the responsibilities are divided up between the district and county council in two-tier areas, and extra duties may be discharged by Combined Authorities in places which have one. Local authority spending can be divided into revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
On the whole, revenue expenditure is financed through a balance of central government grant, retained non-domestic business rates and the locally raised council tax. Capital expenditure is principally financed through central government grants, borrowing and capital receipts.
See Local Government Finance Statistics However this system is currently going through a major change. By the Government has committed to phasing out central grants for local government, so that local government will be funded entirely through locally retained business rates and council tax. The aim of this move is to encourage local authorities to promote local economic growth and to be financially self-sufficient.
It is calculated as the maximum available to councils through all sources of funding.
Local government - Wikipedia
Sign up Sign in. Search site Search. Fun facts about local government 2. How does local government work? How many councils are there? How many councillors are there? How is local government structured? What is local government responsible for? What is the overall political control of councils? Promote and support in formulating, cooperating, integrating the local plan, as well as design the system in monitoring and evaluating implementation of local development plan. Enact, revise, and amend the laws and regulations related the local administrative organizations, including consult, advise, and supervise the local administrative organizations to carry out roles and functions.
Regulate the guidelines and standards concerning the local personnel management in accordance with local management laws and regulations. Promote, support, and cooperate with local administrative organizations on finance, treasury, budget, supplies, revenue collection, and commerce, as well as design the monitoring system on finance, accounting, and supplies of local administrative organizations. Promote, support, and cooperate with local administrative organization on public service provision and education according to the roles and functions of local administrative organizations.
Regulate the guidelines, systems, and key performance indicators as the standards of functioning of local administrative organizations, along with supervise local administrative organizations to the standards.
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Promote the public participation in managing and monitoring the implementation of local administrative organizations. Develop the information technology system for the local administrative organizations' services. Improve the personnel of local administrative organizations and Department of local administration.